Captain Gema Goeyardi explains two different scenarios and sets of requirements for converting foreign pilot licenses to FAA (USA) pilot certificates. The first scenario is for a pilot who already holds a foreign ATP. In that case, the ATP pilot certificate can be converted directly to an FAA ATP certificate. The second is for pilots with lower level licenses. In that case, they can convert directly to a foreign-based FAA private pilot certificate. They will also need to pass a flight review with a qualified FAA flight instructor. To add an instrument rating, they must take a special knowledge test. To add higher ratings or to obtain an FAA certificate that is not foreign-based, they must pass practical tests (checkrides).