304. The Organic Gardener Soil Food Web Expert Jeff Lowenfels |
Jeff Lowenfels author of the Teaming With Microbes Soil Trilogy shares his system for creating healthy organic ecosystems and how we can all work to save the world if we just answer the question What would Greta think?
If you wondered why we changed the name to the GREEN Organic Gardener Podcast there will be no doubt when you finish with this amazing episode. Get ready for Jeff to drop Golden Seeds Galore!
JEFF LOWENFELS "LORD OF THE ROOTS" AUTHOR OF THE SOIL TRIOLOGY:
I was a lawyer, I worked for a fortune 500 company
always been a gardener
Tell me about your first gardening experience?
my father had to take over a family
all the magazines
came over to the house for dinner
I must have been about 10-11
How did you learn how to garden organically?
My first memories are being pushed around in a wheel barrow by my father in the garden
The first thing I planted was a wedding cake strawberry planter
Im in Anchorage Alaska, the longest running garden columnist
My new book is on a brand new kind of cannabis
It will be the next tomato plant
remember when the snap peas came out
everybody had to grow them
still growing them today
has no photo period
same size as a tomato
produces from seed to harvest
just like a tomato plant
one of the things I love about the books is the diagram in the back with the plant diagram, leaves
if you don’t know what the photoperiod thing is
cannabis has to have 12 hours day 12 hours night
12 hours + one minute
triggered by length of light
If you take a christmas cactus and leave it in a situation where it gets more daylight then darkness it won’t bloom no matter what.
A Russian guy was wondering around in 1923.
Says he what is that? looks down and sees this little plant
cannabis plant must have escaped from a hemp plantation growing for rope or something of that it thought. oh my gosh it’s gonna get cold here and I haven’t started to flower
In 1973 a bunch of hippie
they came out with a commercial but the size of the whole plant was the size of a thermos bottle the whole plant
it wasn’t very good the cannabis wasn’t very strong
people lost interest continued to breed them in the background
5 years ago
3 years ago started to get great
2 years ago they were phenomenal
And now if you go to a commercial dispensary in lots of places they are actually selling auto flower cannabis. When you use cbd products a lot of that comes from auto flower cbd plants. So if you are a home grower and you want to grow your own cbd auto flower. you could do that.
I’m getting a little a little bit a head of myself. A lot of listeners are thinking,
It’s all over Canada now, if you are not in a state where cannabis is legal, but it will be no question about it. It’s coming!
tell us little more about eh teaming series in general
the teaming with microbes was a different type of book, when it came out so Timber Press my publisher, the publisher scratched their head
they weren’t sure any of this was true!
What I was talking about was how plants feed themselves!
in a nutshell here’s the system:
they use the photosynthetic energy about 50-60% of it actually, not to produce a tomato or cannabis flower. They use that to produce exudates these are substances that contain carbons that drip out of the roots into the soil!
Now, we’re talking right now, you're exudating right now, your sweating, Your doing the same thing the plant is, and so that sweat is going onto that skin and what does it do? it attracts bacteria and fungi. That’s what these exudates in the soil do, they attract bacteria and fungi!
The reason why people use deodorant they want to contain the bacteria and fungi etc.
In the plant world the exudates go out into the soil and they attract bacteria and fungi. Why? Because they contain carbon and the bacteria and fungi need that carbon, so they eat the carbon. They don’t eat everything else that’s in the exudate, so they poop it out right there and it contains nitrogen in plant useable form . But more important the bacteria get eaten by protozoa and nematodes.
Nematodes are blind microscopic hairlike worms and protozoa are the things you studied in high school but don’t remember anymore.
parameciums. They eat the bacteria and fungi and they poop out the excess. So you get plant usable nutrients being created as a result of these exoduses being consumed and then the bacteria and fungi being consumed so the plant is indirectly feeding itself
And if it wants a different mix of food it changes the exudates by attracting and makes the different mix themselves
bacteria and fungi
bigger guys eat the
soil food web
every now and then something looks up and sees another food chain
and connects it
two chains connected
form a web
All these things running around in the soil are creating tunnels where air can get in, water, a reservoir
spaces from water for the little guys to hide from the big guys
bacteria and fungi are producing all sorts of substances
acids that decay things
bacteria produce slimes that enable them to stick together but also enables little particles of soil to stick together
soil structure comes from these bacteria and protozoa on up.
You start to get a picture as a result of putting out there exudates creating its own food and changing the recipes to its own like
soil structure improve and created
So the plant is in charge of what’s going on, we tend to think plants are these stupid sedentary
now there are even stories about sounds plants make, I read a story a couple of days ago, the sound plants make when they are attacked and cut
How the p
really delve into how the plant attracts it’s food
all the way on up to us
By us I mean the gardener
we come along and we rototill
what does it do?
destroys the fungal network
up not he surface
Rototilling cuts a worm in half, when you cut a worm in half, you don’t get two worms.
what do we do now?
When you put the chemicals down, the plant says to itself, because they aren’t stupid, why are we expanding so much of ourselves to produce exudates to produce food?
you have to become
have to apply these fertilizers every 2 weeks because you have destroyed the soil food web
you’ve scared it away
In some instances the worms for example don’t like these chemicals so they go away!
Sometimes you get a microbe that loves the chemical you are putting down and you get an imbalance and the system doesn’t work right.
The whole system becomes screwed up when we step forward and try to artificially create
so much better then we can
I always end talks by pointing out to people The Red Woods
375 feet tall!
Over 500 years old
How did they get that big without anyone putting any Miracle Gro on them?
They teamed with the microbes!
They put out the exudates, they attracted the bacteria and fungi, who in turn attracted the protozoa and nematodes who ate the bacteria and fungi, pooped out the excess and fed the plants!
This is what they are doing today
So this is the system!
There’s no arguing about it. Timber press, realized about 6 months in when they went to the second printing
this is the system!
There’s no arguing
this is what happens!
if we don’t accept then we’re bucking the system
THAT’s the BASIS of why you should become organic!
team with these microbes
so much easier
why do we have to roto-till? It’s a stupid thing to do.
to plant a pea plant
You rototill for that? why?
if you are having problems getting it into the soil, take a dowel and make a hole, you don’t need to destroy 16 feet of soil structure to plant a seed. You take a 2 by 4, run it down the garden, make a furrow.
Well, won’t the weeds overrun it, or if there is sod there to start a garden, isn’t that why people use rototillers?
That’s why people use cover crops, that’s why as I point out in my books, there is no such thing as bare soil in nature.
We use mulches. So when I plant my garden, I cover the non-planted areas in mulches.
That does 2 things.
It feeds the microbes in the soil and it prevents the weeds from coming through.
If I don’t plant mulches, I plant a living mulch which are cover crops.
The only thing you have to worry about is competition if a weed is coming up, it doesn’t make a difference you’re plants doing fine.
you’d never know
that anything has never been rotated
want to use the right much
You want to use the right mulch. It turns out the bacteria creates the kind of soil that annuals and things that are in the ground less then a year like