Many lean implementation efforts have failed for either of two reasons. 1. Individual tools are cherry-picked and implemented individually without understanding that lean tools function together as an integrated system. 2. Or, lean is viewed only as a technical set or tools and the role of people and their behavior is forgotten or neglected. In this episode we explain the complexity of lean systems in simple terms. We talk about biology, technology, and even cyborgs in establishing the systems-nature of lean manufacturing.