In early 2022, a small peaceful protest over rising fuel prices began in the large Central Asian country of Kazakhstan. In under a week the protest had spread across the country and turned violent. President Tokayev ordered the national forces to "shoot to kill, without warning” - at the end of the day at least 180 people were killed and thousands were injured.
How did the peaceful protest over fuel price rises escalate so quickly? And what does it have to do with organized crime? That is the question we are asking in this episode.
Dr Erica Marat, who is an associate professor at the College of International Security Affairs at the National Defence University in Washington, DC. Where she specialises in security and military institutions in Eurasia, social mobilisation, and organised crime. She is also a member of the GI Network of Experts.