Next, we have Descartes’ demon problem. This can be said to go a step farther, as it assumes that it’s possible (a non-zero chance, to be sure) that a demon is possessing you and causing you to reason and analyze incorrectly or unreliably. Thus? We can’t trust ourselves. We can only look at evidence and build from there.
Finally, we come to a short parable and thought experiment that Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi put forth: the butterfly dream. If Zhuangzi dreamt that he was a butterfly, and his dream seemed so genuine as to be reality, who’s to say that in his current life as a human, he is not just a butterfly dreaming that he is here? And again, how can we ever be sure, even about our very existence? You already know the answer, and how that should affect your approach to thinking.
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